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Rev. Innova Educ. (2020). Vol 2 No 1
Revista Innova Educación
www.revistainnovaeducacion.com
ISSN: 2664-1496 ISSN-L: 2664-1488
Edited by: Instituto Universitario de Investigación Inudi Perú
Organizational commitment and teaching performance in Basic
Education Institutions
Compromiso organizacional y desempeño docente en las Instituciones de Educación Básica
Edwin Estrada
; Helen Mamani
DOI: https://doi.org/10.35622/j.rie.2020.01.008
Nur University, Bolivia
Received 08/10/2019/ Accepted 23/01/2020
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
KEYWORDS
Organizational
commitment, teaching
performance, basic
education
The objective was to establish the relationship between the organizational commitment
and the teaching performance in the Urban Educational Institutions of the Las Piedras
district - 2018. The type of research was non-experimental, the cross-sectional
descriptive correlational design. The study population was made up of 106 teachers and
the sample by 83 teachers, an amount that was obtained by stratified probabilistic
sampling. To collect information, the Meyer and Allen Organizational Commitment
Questionnaire adapted in Peru by Oscar Martín Rivera Carrascal and the Teaching
Performance Questionnaire were used. The data were consolidated in a database to be
processed using the SPSS version 22 software. The results indicate that there is a strong,
direct and significant relationship between the variables organizational commitment
and teacher performance. Spearman's rho correlation coefficient is 0.724 with a p-value
below the level of significance (p = 0.000 <0.05). It is concluded that as long as teachers
present a greater organizational commitment, they will perform better and vice versa.
PALABRAS CLAVE
Compromiso
organizacional,
desempeño docente,
educación básica
El objetivo fue establecer la relación que existe entre el compromiso organizacional y
el desempeño docente en las Instituciones Educativas Urbanas del distrito de Las
Piedras 2018. El tipo de investigación fue no experimental, el diseño descriptivo
correlacional de corte transversal. La población de estudio fue conformada por 106
docentes y la muestra por 83 docentes, cantidad que se obtuvo mediante muestreo
probabilístico estratificado. Para recolectar información se utilizó el Cuestionario de
Compromiso Organizacional de Meyer y Allen adaptado en el Perú por Oscar Martín
Rivera Carrascal y el Cuestionario de Desempeño Docente. Los datos fueron
consolidados en una base de datos para ser procesados mediante paquete estadístico
Statical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). Los resultados indican que existe una
relación fuerte, directa y significativa entre las variables compromiso organizacional y
el desempeño docente. El coeficiente de correlación rho de Spearman es de 0,724 con
un p-valor inferior al nivel de significancia (p= 0,000<0,05). Se concluye que mientras
los docentes presenten un mayor compromiso organizacional, se desempeñarán de
mejor manera y viceversa.
I
N
U
D
I
P
E
R
Ú
Part. Reg. SUNARP Nº 11162434
INSTITUTO UNIVERSITARIO DE INVESTIGACN
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Organizational commitment and teaching performance in Basic Education Institutions
Edwin Estrada; Helen Mamani
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133
1. INTRODUCTION
Nowadays, there is a great responsibility on the members of the management team in the basic
education institutions to manage the human resources that they lead, to elaborate strategies that
make possible and favor the articulation and collegial work of the teachers in order to concretize
the Institutional aims traced in the management documents, both short and long term.
There are multiple researches (Llapa-Rodríguez, Trevizan, Shinyashiki and Mendes, 2009;
Saldaña and Cornejo, 2017; Huaynate, 2019) that indicate that the objectives are reached
effectively when the workers of an institution, in this case the teachers who develop A high level
of identification and commitment. In that sense, the commitment of the worker towards the
institution where the worker works has become one of the most studied phenomena in the field of
administration and human resources management. However, inside of the educational institutions
there are few policies of revaluation, motivation, stimuli and professional improvement towards
the teachers, which generate in them little commitment to the work they do.
Under that perspective, according to Porter, Steers, Mowday, and B oulian (1974)
organizational commitment (OC), is defined as the relative strength of an individual’s
identification with and involvement in an institution, which is characterized by the intense desire
to remain as a member of a particular institution, an agreement to maintain high levels of effort
for the institution and a definitive belief and acceptance of the values and goals of the institution,
which results from individual orientation towards the organization as an end in itself.
Similarly, Steers (1977) defined commitment as that force that allows an individual to get
involvement with the institution where the individual develops his work.
Also, Meyer and Allen (1991) point out that organizational commitment is a psychological
state; a process through which the goals of the organization and individual goals are integrated.
They proposed a more complete concept of the organizational commitment construct and they
were the ones who deeply analyzed it, besides to studying the identification and participation of
the collaborators with their organization.
The organizational commitment is directly related to the sense of belonging and the
responsibility that each person has with the place where they work. It is crucial to have committed
and effective workers, while providing high efficiency and organizational efficiency.
Likewise, a committed worker is a person who is fully involved and enthusiastic about the
work he does, is attracted and inspired by his work “I want to do this, committed “I am dedicated
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Edwin Estrada; Helen Mamani
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134
to the success of what I am doing,” and fascinated "I love what I am doing." Committed employees
care about the future of the organization and are willing to invest effort beyond duty to make this
organization succeed, beyond all this, it is important to value the human capital and the value of
the work they do (Rodríguez, 2017).
In relation to teacher performance, Montenegro (2003) makes a conceptual approach to the
term teacher performance, considering that it is the full fulfillment of their responsibilities which
is determined by factors associated with the same teacher, students and their context.
Likewise, “The performance is exercised in different fields or levels: the sociocultural
context, the institutional environment, the classroom environment and the teacher himself, through
reflexive action” (p.18). In that sense, it is necessary to evaluate it to improve the educational
quality and to qualify the teaching profession. Therefore, the evaluation presents well-defined
functions and characteristics that are taken into account at the time of application.
As well ,Robalino (2007) pointed out that teacher performance is the process of
mobilization of their professional abilities, their personal disposition and their social responsibility
to articulate significant connection between the components that impact the training of students,
participate in educational management, strengthen a democratic institutional culture and intervene
in the design, implementation and evaluation of local and national educational policies, to promote
student learning and development of skills and life skills (p.3).
Another important definition is made by the Ministry of Education (2012) when defining
performance as the observable actions that a person performs; these can be described as well as
evaluate and that account for their competence. It comes from English performance or perform,
and is related to the achievement of the expected learning and the fulfillment of the determined
responsibilities. The responsibilities are performed and reveals the person's basic competence. In
the performance definition we identify three conditions: 1) observable action, 2) a responsibility
and 3) the achievement of certain results (p.29).
From this perspective, as a background are Campana (2018) with the research
"Organizational commitment and teaching performance at the Uriel García del Cusco Educational
Institution, 2018" The objective of the research was to analyze the connection between
organizational commitment and teaching performance. The approach was quantitative, with a non-
experimental design; for data collection, the organizational commiment and classroom teaching
performance questionnaire was applied. The results led to conclude a 95% confidence level, which,
Revista Innova Educación Vol. 2. No. 1 (2020)
Organizational commitment and teaching performance in Basic Education Institutions
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135
if there is a direct and significant relation between organizational commitment and teaching
performance, was concluded.
Likewise, Ortiz (2018) with the study "Organizational commitment and performance in the
classroom of teachers of public educational institutions". The objective was to establish the relation
between organizational commitment and teaching performance from the perception of teachers.
The research had a quantitative approach, of a correlational descriptive type and a non-
experimental design. The tools used for data collection were the Organizational commiment Scale
and the Teacher Performance Assessment Scale. The results indicate a direct correlation of
moderate intensity between organizational commitment and teaching performance, being
statistically significant at a probability level of 0.001.
Nevertheless, Alvarado (2018) with the research "Organizational commitment and
teaching performance in educational institutions of the primary level of the network 02 -Puente
Piedra, 2018". The objective was to determine the relation between organizational commitment
and teaching performance. The research was conducted under the quantitative approach; had a
non-experimental design with a descriptive level of correlational. The conclusions explain the
existence of a positive and significant correlation between the variables, with a coefficient of 0.715
indicating a considerable positive correlation with a p=0.000 < 0.05.
From the theoretical approach and the background presented was established as a research
problem. What relation exists between organizational commitment and teaching performance in
the Basic Education Institutions of the district of Las Piedras – 2018?
This study is institutionally justified since the results will serve the management team of
the educational institutions focused on this research to implement recognition, incentive and
support actions so that they can increase the commitment of teachers to their institutions and thus
can better realize the objectives that are set. Likewise, from the academic aspect will help to know
the level of performance that teachers have, managers will be able to execute pedagogical
strategies such as accompaniment, collegiate work and strengthening their capacities to improve
their pedagogical practice and thus the levels of learning achievement of the students are the most
optimal.
The reforefelt, it was raised as the general objective of this research to establish the relation
that exists between organizational commitment and teaching performance in the Basic Education
Institutions of the district of Las Piedras – 2018.
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136
2. MATERIALS AND METHODS
Research type and design
The type of research was non-experimental (Hernández et al., 2010), since the study variables were
not manipulated, but the phenomena were observed as they occur in their natural context for later
analysis. The methodological design used in this study was the correlational and transversal
description as we focused on measuring and describing the relation between variables. Figure 1
represents the outline of the design of this research:
Figure 1. Research design scheme.
Where:
M = Sample.
Ox = Variable 1: Organizational commitment
OY = Variable 2: Teaching Performance
(r) = Relation between study variables.
Population and sample
The study population was formed by all the teachers working in the 6 basic education institutions
belonging to the district of Las Piedras: Miguel Grau Seminario, Sudadero, Jorge Chávez Rengifo,
Raúl Vargas Quiroz and Héroes de Illampu, who are a total of 106. As for the sample, it was
obtained by stratified probabilistic sampling, which was 83 teachers. Table 1 details the
distribution of the sample.
Table 1
Sample distribution
Educational institution
No of teachers
Miguel Grau Seminario
21
Sudadero
9
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137
Jorge Chávez Rengifo
19
Raúl Vargas Quiroz
15
Héroes de Illampu
19
Total
83
Source: Own elaboration
Techniques and instruments
The survey technique was used to collect information on organizational commitment and teaching
performance. In relation to the instruments, the Meyer and Allen Organizational Commitment
Questionnaire, adapted in Peru by Oscar Martín Rivera Carrascal (2010), was used to measure the
organizational commitment variable, which assesses the level of commitment teachers present to
their institution. It consists of three dimensions:
Affective commitment
It is defined by Meyer and Allen (1991) as the emotional bond that workers develop and manifest
towards the institution, because their psychological needs and expectations are met. It is related to
the personal perception of the objective and subjective characteristics of the organization, being
fundamental to its satisfaction, professional motivation and organizational success (Neves,
Graveto, Rodrigues, Maro and Parreira, 2018).
The commitment to continuity
It refers to the individual's awareness of the investment of the time and effort they would lose if
they decided to set aside their institution to seek another job (Loli, 2006). According to Llapa-
Rodríguez, Trevizan, Shinyashiki and Mendes (2009) is characterized by that worker who is
physically in his work, but who does not invest fully his human capital, that is, remains not by the
existence of a link but because the costs of not staying in it can be very high.
Regulatory commitment
It refers to the duty to be, to the loyalty to the institution and the reciprocity they have towards it
(Arias, 2001, cited by Osorio, Ramos and Walteros, 2016). It is also defined as the worker's
experimentation of a strong sense of obligation to remain in the organization for which he works,
reveals the feelings of obligation of the worker (Ríos, Téllez and Ferrer, 2010).
The aforementioned dimensions are distributed in 21 items. The assessment of questionnaire items
is through the Likert scale (very agree, agree, neither agree nor disagree, disagree or strongly
disagree).
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138
To measure the variable teaching performance, the Teaching Performance Questionnaire was
applied, which was adapted from the Framework of Good Teacher Performance developed by the
Ministry of Education (2012). It consists of 40 items across a Likert scale (totally agree, agree,
neither in agreement nor disagree, disagree and totally disagree). It is structured in four
dimensions:
Preparing for student learning
It is understood as the set of planning activities carried out by the teacher linked to pedagogical
work such as annual curricular programming, units and learning sessions under an inclusive and
intercultural approach (Ministry of Education, 2012).
Teaching for student learning
It refers to the process of conducting teaching carried out by the teacher and includes the promotion
of a favorable classroom climate, management of motivation and content, knowledge of various
methodological strategies, correct evaluation process and the appropriate use of education
resources (Ministry of Education, 2012).
Participation in community-based school management
The teacher has an active participation in the institution, in the working committees such as:
evaluation committee, commission of elaboration and review of the Institutional Educational
Project and the Institutional Curriculum Project, etc. It makes significant contributions to the
design and development of pedagogical and institutional projects (Vargas, 2017).
The development of professionalism and teaching identity
It is conceived as the process of reflection on the pedagogical practice carried out by the teacher
and the continuous training that he performs both personally and collegially.
3. RESULTS
After the data collection had been carried out, they were systematized through frequency tables,
for descriptive analysis, and correlation matrices, for the hypothesis test, which are presented
below.
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Table 2
Descriptive results of the organizational commitment variable
Levels
Frequency
Percentage
Percentege válid
Cumulative Percentage
Very low
1
1,2
1,2
1,2
Low
13
15,7
15,7
16,9
Medium
21
25,3
25,3
42,2
High
40
48,2
48,2
90,4
Very high
8
9,6
9,6
100,0
Total
83
100,0
100,0
Source: Database
According to Table 2, 48.2% of teachers have a high organizational commitment, which means,
according to García, Useche and Schlesinger (2013) who identify with and are proud of by the
institution, seek to make their personal goals consistent with institutional objectives, take between
two or more alternatives the option that most benefits the school, participates in the achievement
of plans and is involved in participating in scheduled activities. Similarly, 25.3% have an average
level of commitment, also 15.7% have a low level, on the other hand, and 9.6% have a very high
level of commitment and only 1.2% have a very low organizational commitment, characterized by
indifference to the achievement of institutional goals, little willingness to make efforts for it and
few desires to remain a member of it. (Chiang, Gomez and Wackerling, 2016).
Table 3
Descriptive results of variable teaching performance
Levels
Frequency
Percentage
Valid Percentage
Cumulative Percentage
Deficient
1
1,2
1,2
1,2
In process
22
26,5
26,5
27,7
Satisfactory
50
60,2
60,2
88,0
Featured
10
12,0
12,0
100,0
Total
83
100,0
100,0
Source: Database
According to Table 3, the majority of teachers (60.2%) it presents a satisfactory level of
performance, which is characterized by the planning of strategies, resources and materials, carry
out the teaching process taking into account the particularities, rhythms and styles of learning, in
addition to executing the pedagogical and didactic processes, actively participate in the
management of the educational institution and reflect on its pedagogical practice to improve its
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performance (Andia, 2018). On the other hand, 26.5% are in the process of reaching a good
performance, 12% have outstanding performance and finally 1.2% have a poor level of
performance, characterized according to Oscco (2015) by poor preparation and execution of
learning sessions, ignorance of the characteristics of students, minimal participation in institutional
activities and few desires for self-improvement.
Table 4
Matrix correlation between organizational commitment and teaching performance variables
Organizational
commiment
Teaching
performance
Correlation
coefficient
1,000
.724**
Sig. (bilateral)
.
.000
Organizational
commiment
N
253
83
correlation
coefficient
.724
**
1,000
Sig. (bilateral)
.000
.
Spearman's
Rho
Teaching
performance
N
83
253
**. Correlation is significant at level 0.01 (2 queues).
Source: Database
Table 4 shows us that Spearman's rho correlation coefficient between organizational commiment
and teaching performance variables is 0.724 with a p-value lower than the significance level
(p=0.000<0.05). The above concludes that there is a strong positive correlation between the
variables analyzed. This means that the greater the organizational commitment of teachers, the
greater their performance and vice versa.
Table 5
Correlation matrix between affective, continuity and regulatory commitment dimensions and
variable teaching performance
Teaching performance
Correlation Coefficient
.569**
Sig. (bilateral)
.000
Affective
Commitment
N
83
Spearman's
Rho
Continuity
Correlation Coefficient
.669**
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Sig. (bilateral)
.000
Commitment
N
83
Correlation Coefficient
.664**
Sig. (bilateral)
.000
Regulatory
Commitment
N
83
Source: Database
**. Correlation is significant at level 0.01 (2 queues).
Table 5 shows that there is a significant positive correlation between the affective commitment
dimensions (rs=0.569; p=0.000<0.05), continuity commitment (rs=0.669; p=0.000<0.05) and
regulatory commitment (rs=0.664; p=0.000<0.05) and the variable teaching performance. In this
sense, you can see that the dimension of the organizational commitment variable that relates most
to teaching performance is the commitment to continuity.
4. DISCUSSION
By observing the overall results obtained, the first thing we find is that teachers of the Institutions
of Basic Education are characterized by presenting high levels of organizational commitment.
These results indicate that teachers identify with the institution where they work their stated
objectives, engaging in the activities, although if there were other work options, they would
analyze their permanence. The results found differ from the results obtained by Rivera (2010),
Campana (2018), Alvarado (2018) and Ortiz (2018) who found in their research that organizational
commitment is in medium level.
In relation to teaching performance, most teachers in The Basic Education Institutions are
characterized by a satisfactory level of performance. These results indicate that preparation for
learning, teaching, participation in school management and the development of professionalism
and teaching identity is adequate, however, there is a considerable percentage of teachers who are
at the beginning and process of achieving a relevant performance so that pedagogical
accompaniment is necessary to strengthen their capacities. The results presented coincide with the
research of Macavilca (2018) who found that the majority of teachers performed adequately.
When analyzing the correlation between organizational commitment and teaching
performance variables, it can be seen that Spearman's rho correlation coefficient between
organizational commitment and teaching performance variables is 0.724 with a p-value below the
significance level (p=0.000<0.05). This means that the greater the organizational commitment of
teachers, the greater their performance and vice versa. In this sense, being committed to the work
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we do and the institution in which we work means that we can perform in the best way since we
will put on the institutional jersey and contribute from our side to concreteize the objectives and
goals that the institutions have set the way. However, if teachers are not committed and identified
with the institution, they will not be able to perform properly which will lead to the loss of
educational quality. These results coincide with the research of Ramos (2005) who found that there
is a positive correlation between organizational commitment and teaching performance and there
is correlation between the dimensions affective commitment, normative commitment and
continuity with the variable teaching performance. Likewise it is corroborated by the research
Gómez (2015) that indicates that there is empirical evidence to affirm that there is a direct and
significant correlation between organizational commitment and teaching performance. Likewise,
it coincides with the research of Leyva (2016) who found that there is a positive relationship
between the variable of organizational commitment and teacher performance. It also relates to the
work of Guarniz (2014) who established from his study that there is a significant correlation
between the variables commitment and teaching performance. Likewise, it coincides with the
study of Campana (2018) who found, with a 95% confidence level, that there is a direct and
significant relationship between organizational commitment and teaching performance in the
classroom at the Uriel García del Cusco Educational Institution, 2018, according to the Chi Square
test. On the other hand, it is corroborated by the research of Ortiz (2018) who determined that there
is a direct relationship of moderate intensity and statistically significant (r=0.53) between the
organizational commitment and the teaching performance of the teachers of the Public Educational
Institutions, Nicolás de Piérola, Luis Montfort, José A. Quiñones and Leoncio Prado de Ate-
Vitarte during the year 2016. Finally, it coincides with the research of Alvarado (2018) who
determined the existence of a positive and significant correlation between the variables, with a
coefficient of 0.715 indicating a considerable positive correlation and a p=0.000.
Finally, it was found that there is a significant positive correlation between the affective
commitment dimensions (rs=0.569; p=0.000<0.05), continuity commitment (rs=0.669;
p=0.000<0.05) and regulatory commitment (rs=0.664; p=0.000<0.05) and the teaching
performance variable. In this sense, you can see that the dimension of the organizational
commitment variable that relates most to teaching performance is the commitment to continuity.
These results coincide with the researches of Ortiz (2018), Macavilca (2018) and Baltazar (2017)
which found that the dimensions of the affective commitment variable correlate directly and
significantly with teaching performance.
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5. CONCLUSIONS
Based on the data found, it was determined that there is a strong positive correlation between
organizational commitment and teaching performance in the Basic Education Institutions of the
District of Las Piedras, 2018, by statistically finding a Spearman rho correlation coefficient of
0.724 with a p-value lower than the significance level (p=0.000<0.05).
It was also established that there is a significant positive correlation between the affective
commitment dimension and the teaching performance in the Basic Education Institutions of the
district of Las Piedras, 2018, by finding a Spearman rho correlation coefficient of 0.569 with a p-
value lower than the significance level (p=0.000<0.05).
In the same perspective, a considerable positive correlation was found between the
dimension commitment of continuity and teaching performance in the Basic Education Institutions
of the district of Las Piedras, 2018, finding a Spearman rho correlation coefficient of 0.669 with a
p-value lower than the significance level (p=0.000<0.05).
Similarly, there is a considerable positive correlation between the normative commitment
dimension and teaching performance at the Basic Education Institutions of the Las Piedras district,
2018, by finding a Spearman rho correlation coefficient of 0.664 with a p-value lower than the
significance level (p=0.000<0.05).
These results make a contribution to the directors and sub directors of the different
educational institutions since it will promote in them the ability to manage, motivate and commit
the teachers in charge to perform efficiently in compliance with the domains, competencies and
performances established in the Framework of Good Teacher Performance.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
To the principals and teachers of the educational institutions of the district of Las Piedras, for
without their openness and selfless support this research would not have succeeded.
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